Listening intervention study


To cite or reference this content, please use the following reference:

Haake, A. B. (2010). Music listening in offices: Balancing internal needs and external considerations (Doctoral thesis, University of Sheffield, Sheffield) accessed from


Intervention studies have the longest academic tradition among studies of music at work. They were particularly frequent during the 1930s and 1940s, when both researchers and employers were interested in ways to increase production.

Music listening in the Fordist workplaces was characterised by piped music played through loudspeakers, chosen by researchers or managers or broadcasted by corporations like Muzak Inc. This type of listening is less common today in the post-Fordist office- based workplace, which is more often characterised by self-selected, individualised listening.

The following was predicted:

Hypothesis 1: Office-workers will exhibit more positive work responses (e.g. work performance, job satisfaction, organisational satisfaction) when they listen to music than when they do not.

Hypothesis 2: Office-workers will report more positive mood, higher well-being and less anxiety and stress when they listen to music, than when they do not.

Hypothesis 3: Office-workers will report less environmental interference when they listen all day, compared to listening in breaks and not listening at all.

Hypothesis 4: Office-workers will report less social interaction when they listen to music than when not listening, and less social interaction when they listen in breaks, than when they listen all day.


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