Adorno, T. W. (1976). Introduction to the sociology of music. New York: The Seabury Press Inc.

Antrim, D. K. (1943). Music in industry. The Musical Quarterly, XXIX(3), 275-290. AOL. (online). One in five use iPods at work. [accessed 7 August, 2007, from].

Ashford, S. J., Lee, C., & Bobko, P. (1989). Content, causes and consequences of job insecurity: a therory-based measure and substantive test. Academy of management journal, 32, 803-829.

Attaran, M. (2000). Managing legal liability of the net: a ten step guide for IT managers. Information management and computer security, 8(2), 981-900.

Baldry, C. (1997). The social construction of office space. International Labour Review, 136(3), 365-378.

Batt-Rawden, K., & DeNora, T. (2005). Music and informal learning in everyday life. Music Education Research, 7(3), 289-304.

Bauman, Z. (2001). Consuming life. Journal of Consumer Culture, 1(1), 9-29.

Bazeley, P. (2009). Editorial: Integrating data analyses in mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(3), 203-207.

BBC. (online). Copying CDs could be made legal. [accessed 19 September, 2009, from]

Beck, U., & Beck-Gernsheim, E. (2001). Individualization: institutionalized individualism and its social and political consequences. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Becker, J. (2001). Anthropological perspectives on emotion and music. In P. N. Juslin & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.), Music and emotion: theory and research (pp. 135- 160). New York: Oxford University Press.

Beer, D. (2007). Tune out: Music, soundscapes and the urban mise-en-scéne. Information, Communication & Society, 10(6), 846-866.

Belojevic, G., Slepcevic, V., & Jakovljevic, B. (2001). Mental performance in noise: the role of introversion. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21(2), 209-213.

Berlyne, D. E. (1971). Aesthetics and Psychobiology. New York: Meredith.

Biley, F. C. (2000). The effects on patient well-being of music listening as a nursing intervention: a review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 9(5), 668-677.

Birnholtz, J. P., Gutwin, C., & Hawkey, K. (2007). Privacy in the open: how attention mediates awareness and privacy in open-plan offices. Paper presented at the International ACM Conference on Supporting group work, Sanibel Island, Florida.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.

Brennan, A., Chugh, J. S., & Kline, T. (2002). Traditional versus open office design: A longitudinal field atudy. Environment and Behavior, 34(3), 279-299.

Brooks, L. J., & Bowker, G. (2002). Playing at work: Understanding the future of work practices at the Institute for the Future. Information, Communication & Society, 5(1), 109 -136.

Brown, G., Lawrence, T. B., & Robinson, S. L. (2005). Territoriality in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 30(3), 577–594.

Brown, S., & Theorell, T. (2006). The social uses of background music for personal enhancement. In S. Brown & U. Volgsten (Eds.), Music and manipulation: On the social uses and social control of music (pp. 126-160). New York/Oxford: Berghahn Books.

Bull, M. (2000). Sounding out the city. Oxford: Berg. Bull, M. (2007). The auditory privatisation of the workplace Sound moves: iPod culture and urban experience (pp. 108-120). New York: Routledge.

Burns, J., Labbé, E., Williams, K., & McCall, J. (1999). Perceived and physiological indicators of relaxation: as different as Mozart and Alice in Chains. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 24(3), 197- 202.

Cassidy, G., & MacDonald, R. A. R. (2007). The effect of aggressive and relaxing popular music on the task performance of introverts and extraverts. Psychology of Music, 35(3), 517-537.

Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2007). Personality and music: Can traits explain how people use music in everyday life? Journal of British Psychology, 98(2), 175–185. Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Clarke, A. E. (2005). Situational analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Clarke, E. F. (2006). Commentary on Huovinen’s “Varieties of Musicological Empiricism”. Empirical Musicology Review, 1(1), 28-32.

Clarke, E. F., & Cook, N. (2004). Empirical Musicology. Aims, methods, prospects. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cloonan, M., & Johnson, B. (2002). Killing me softly with his song: an initial investigation into the use of popular music as a tool of oppression. Popular Music, 21(1), 27–39.

Cook, J. D., Hepworth, S. J., Wall, T. D., & Warr, P. B. (1981). The experience of work: a compendium and review of 249 measures and their use. New York: Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

D’Abate, C. P. (2005). Working hard or hardly working:A study of individuals engaging in personal business on the job. Human Relations, 58(8), 1009–1032.

Daoussis, L., & McKelvie, S. J. (1986). Musical preferences and effects of music on a reading comprehension test for extraverts and introverts. Perceptual and motor skills, 62, 283-289.

David, C. (2006). The sound of music. Business Express, September, 16-18.

Davis, T. R. V. (1984). The influence of the physical environment in offices. The Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 271-283.

DeNora, T. (1999). Music as a technology of the self. Poetics, 27(1), 31-56.

DeNora, T. (2000). Music in everyday life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

DeNora, T. (2001). Aesthetic agency and musical practice: new directions in the sociology of music and emotion. In P. N. Juslin & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.), Music and emotion (pp. 161-180). New York: Oxford University Press.

DeNora, T. (2003). After Adorno: rethinking music sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Denscombe, M. (2008). Communities of practice: A research paradigm for the mixed methods approach. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 2(3), 270-283.

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed ed., pp. 1-28). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dibben, N. & Haake, A.B. (forthcoming) The experiences of music in office-based workplace settings. In G. Born (Ed), Music, sound, and space: MP3, recordings and tuning in to the contemporary world, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Dibben, N., & Williamson, V. J. (2006). An exploratory survey of in-vehicle music listening. Psychology of Music, 35(4), 571-590.

Diener, E., & Lucas, R. E. (2000). Subjective emotional well-being. In M. Lewis, & Haviland-Jones, J.M. (Ed.), Handbook of Emotions (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

Ding, S. (2008). Users’ privacy preferences in open plan offices. Facilities, 26(9/10), 401-417.

Donald, I., Taylor, P., Johnson, S., Cooper, C., Cartwright, S., & Robertson, S. (2005). Work environments, stress, and productivity: an examination using ASSET. International Journal of Stress Management, 12(4), 409-423.

Duncan, H. D. (1984). Communication and the social order. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.

Elsbach, K. D. (2003). Relating physical environment to self-categorizations: Identity threat and affirmation in a non-territorial office space.  Administrative Science Quarterly, 48(4), 622-654.

Erber, R., Wegner, D. M., & Therriault, N. (1996). On being cool and collected: mood regulation in anticipation of social interaction. Journal of personality and social psychology, 70(4), 757-766.

Eriksson, E., Riisgaard Hansen, T., & Lykke-Olesen, A. (2007, February 15-17). Reclaiming public space – Designing for public interaction with private devices. Paper presented at the Tangible and Embedded Interaction conference, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

Eysenck, H. J. (1967). The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas.

Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.

Fisher, C. D. (1993). Boredom at work: A neglected concept. Human Relations, 46, 395-417.

Fox, J. G. (1971). Background music and industrial efficiency – a review. Applied ergonomics, 2(2), 70-73.

Fox, J. G., & Embrey, E. D. (1972). Music – an aid to productivity. Applied ergonomics, 3(4), 202-205.

Frith, S. (2002). Music and everyday life. Critical Quarterly, 44(1), 35-48.

Furnham, A. (2005). The psychology of behaviour at work. The individual in the organisation. Howe and New York: Psychology Press Taylor & Francis Group.

Furnham, A., & Allass, K. (1999). The influence of musical distraction of varying complexity on the cognitive performance of extroverts and introverts. European Journal of Personality, 13(1), 27-38.

Furnham, A., & Bradley, A. (1997). Music while you work: the differential distraction of background music on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11(5), 445-455.

Furnham, A., & Strbac, L. (2002). Music is as distracting as noise: the differential distraction of background music and noise on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts. Ergonomics, 45(3), 203-217.

Furnham, A., Trew, S., & Sneade, I. (1999). The distracting effects of vocal and instrumental music on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts. Personality and Individual Differences, 27(2), 381-392.

Gabrielsson, A. (2001). Emotions in strong experiences with music. In P. N. Juslin & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.), Music and emotion: theory and research (pp. 431-449). New York: Oxford University Press.

Gardner, H. (1983). De sju intelligenserna (Frames of mind – The theory of multiple intelligences) (3 ed.). Jönköping, Sweden: Brain Books AB.

Garreth, R. K., & Danziger, J. N. (2008). On cyberslacking: Workplace status and personal Internet use at work. Cyberpsychology & Behaviour, 11(3), 287-292.

Gatewood, E. L. (1921). An experiment in the use of music in an architectural drafting room. Journal of applied psychology, V, 350-358.

Glaser, B. G. (1992). Basics of Grounded Theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine.

Greasley, A. E. (2008). Engagement with music in everyday life: an in-depth study of adults’ musical preferences and listening behaviours. PhD thesis, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent.

Greasley, A. E., & Lamont, A. M. (2006). Music preferences in adulthood: why do we like the music we do? Paper presented at the 9th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, Bologna, Italy.

Greene, J. C. (2008). Is mixed methods social inquiry a distinctive methodology? Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 2(1), 7-22.

Gregory, A. H. (1997). The roles of music in society: the ethnomusicological perspective. In D. J. Hargreaves & A. C. North (Eds.), The social psychology of music (pp. 123-140). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hargreaves, D. J., & North, A. C. (1999). The functions of music in everyday life: redefining the social in music psychology. Psychology of Music, 27, 71-83.

Henning, R. A., Jacques, P., Kissel, G. V., Sullivan, A. B., & Alteras-Webb, S. M. (1997). Frequent short rest breaks from computer work: effects on productivity and well-being at two field sites. Ergonomics, 40(1), 78-91.

Höflich, J. R. (2006). The mobile phone and the dynamic between private and public communication: results of an international exploratory study. Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 19(2), 59-68. HSE. (2003). Press-release. [accessed 4 November, 2004, from]

Huron, D. (2009, 12-16 August). Why some ethnomusicologists don’t like music cognition: Finding common ground in the study of musical minds. Paper presented at the 7th Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Isen, A. M. (1999). Positive affect. In T. Dalgleish, & Power, M. (Ed.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 521-539). Chicester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Jensen, K. L., Arens, E., & Zagreus, L. (2005). Acoustical quality in office workstations, as assessed by occupant surveys. Paper presented at the Indoor Air 2005, Beijing, Chine.

Johnson, B. R., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26.

Johnson, B. R., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Turner, L. A. (2007). Toward a definition of mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 112-133.

Jones, S., & Schumacher, T. (1992). Muzak: On functional music and power. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 9, 156-169.

Jorgensen, H. (1989). Musikopplevelsens psykologi. Oslo: Norsk Musikforlag A/S. 213

Junestrand, S., Keijer, U., & Tollmar, K. (2001). Private and public digital domestic spaces. International Journal of Human-Computer Science, 54(5), 753-778.

Juslin, P. N., & Laukka, P. (2004). Expression, perception, and induction or musical emotion: A review and a questionnaire of everyday listening. Journal of New Music Research, 33(3), 217-238.

Kahneman, D. (1973). Arousal and attention. In D. Kahneman (Ed.), Attention and effort (pp. 28-49). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Kallinen, K. (2002). Reading news from a pocket computer in a distracting environment: effects of the tempo of background music. Computers in Human Behaviour, 18(5), 537-551.

Kaplan, L., & Nettel, R. (1948). Music in industry. Biology and human affairs, 13, 129-135.

Kiger, D. M. (1989). Effects of music information load on a reading comprehension task. Perceptual and motor skills, 69, 531-534.

Konecni, V. J. (1982). Social interaction and musical preferences. In D. Deutsch (Ed.), The psychology of music: Academic Press, Inc.

Korczynski, M. (2003). Music at work: towards a historical overview. Folk Music Journal, 8(3), 314-334.

Korczynski, M. (2007). Music and meaning on the factory floor. Work and occupations, 34(3), 253-289.

Korczynski, M., & Jones, K. (2006). Instrumental music? The social origins of broadcast music in British factories. Popular Music, 25(2), 145–164.

Korczynski, M., Robertson, E., Pickering, M., & Jones, K. (2005). ‘We sang ourselves through that war': women, music and factory work in world war two. Labour History Review, 70(2), 185-214.

Lanza, J. (1994). Elevator music: a surreal history of Muzak, easy-listening and other moodsong. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Leather, P., Beale, D., & Sullivan, L. (2003). Noise, psychosocial stress and their interaction in the workplace. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 213- 222.

LeCompte, D. C., Neely, C. B., & Wilson, J. R. (1997). Irrelevant speech and irrelevant tones: The relative importance of speech to the irrelevant speech effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 23(2), 472-483.

Lesiuk, T. (2005). The effect of music listening on work performance. Psychology of Music, 33(2), 173-191.

Lewis, S. (2003). The integration of paid work and the rest of life. Is post-industrial work the new leisure? Leisure Studies, 22(4), 343-345.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. MacDonald, R. (2006). An investigation of the effects of post-operative music listening in hospital settings. Paper presented at the 9th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, University of Bologna, Italy, 22-26 August.

Marcus, L. (2008, 7 July). Desk jockeys, Guardian, pp. 1-2. [also available on]

Martí, J. (1997). When music becomes noise: sound and music that people in Barcelona hear but don’t want to listen to. World of Music, 39(2), 9-17.

Martin, L. L., & Davies, B. (1998). Beyond hedonism and associationism: A configural view of the role of affect in evaluation, processing and self- regulation. Motivation and emotion, 22(1), 33-51.

McGee, W., & Gardner, J. E. (1949). Music in a complex industrial job. Personnel psychology, 2, 405-417.

McLean, L., Tingley, M., Scott, R. N., & Rickards, J. (2001). Computer terminal work and the benefit of microbreaks. Applied ergonomics, 32, 225-237.

Miller, S., & Weckert, J. (2000). Privacy, the workplace and the Internet. Journal of Business Ethics, 28, 255–265.

Mitchell, L. A., MacDonald, R. A. R., & Brodie, E. E. (2006). A comparison of the effects of preferred music, arithmetic and humour on cold pressor pain. European Journal of Pain, 10(4), 343-351.

NationalStatistics. (2006). Standard Occupational Classification 2000. [accessed 18 May, 2006, from NationalStatisticsNomis. (2006). Census data 2001 for England. [accessed 25 May, 2006, from

North, A., & Hargreaves, D. J. (2006). Music in business environments. In S. Brown & U. Volgsten (Eds.), Music and manipulation (pp. 103-125). New York: Berghahn Books. North, A., & Hargreaves, D. J. (2008). The social and applied psychology of music. New York: Oxford University Press.

North, A., Hargreaves, D. J., & Hargreaves, J. J. (2004). Uses of music in everyday life. Music perception, 22(1), 41-77.

Oldham, G. R., Cummings, A., Mischel, L. J., Schmidtke, J. M., & Zhou, J. (1995). Listen while you work? Quasi-experimental relations between personal-stereo headset use and employee work response. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(5), 547-564.

OPSI. (online). Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988. [accessed 27 October, 2009, from].

Oravec, J. A. (2002). Constructive approaches to internet recreation in the workplace. Communications of the ACM, 45(1).

Parente, J. A. (1976). Music preference as a factor of music distraction. Perceptual and motor skills, 43, 337-338.

PRS (2008, 18 December). [Personal communication].

Ransdell, S. E., & Gilroy, L. (2001). The effect of background music on word processing. Computers in Human Behaviour, 17(2), 141-148.

Roberts, J. (1983). Playing at work. Leisure Studies, 2(2), 217-230. Robson, C. (2002). Real world research – a resource for social scientists and practitioners-researchers (Second ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ruud, E. (1997). Music and the quality of life. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 6(2), 86-97.

Saarikallio, S., & Erkkilä, J. (2007). The role of music in adolescents’ mood regulation. Psychology of Music, 35(1), 91-112.

Salamé, P., & Baddeley, A. (1989). Effects of background music on phonological short-term memory. Quarterly journal of experimental psychology, 41a, 18-26.

Saucier, G. (1994). Mini-markers: a brief version of Goldberg’s unipolar big-five markers. Journal of personality assessment, 63(3), 506-516.

Scherer, K. R., & Zentner, M. R. (2001). Emotional effects of music: production rules. In P. N. Juslin & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.), Music and emotion: theory and research (pp. 361-392). New York: Oxford University Press.

Siau, K., Nah, F. F.-H., & Teng, L. (2002). Acceptable internet use policy. Communications of the ACM, 45(1), 75-79.

Simmers, C. (2002). Aligning Internet usage with business priorities. Communications of the ACM, 45(1), 71-74.

Sloboda, J. A. (2000). Music and worship: A psychologist’s perspective. In J. Astley, T. Hone & M. Savage (Eds.), Creative chords: Studies in music, theology and Christian formation (pp. 110-125). Leonminster, U.K.: Gracewing.

Sloboda, J. A., & Juslin, P. N. (2001). Psychological perspectives on music and emotion. In P. N. Juslin & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.), Music and emotion: theory and research. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sloboda, J. A., & O’Neill, S. A. (2001). Emotions in everyday listening to music. In P. N. Juslin & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.), Music and emotion: theory and research (pp. 415-429). New York: Oxford University Press.

Sloboda, J. A., O’Neill, S. A., & Ivaldi, A. (2001). Functions of music in everyday life: an exploratory study using the experience sampling method. Musica Scientiae, V(1), 9-32.

Smith, W. A. S. (1961). Effects of industrial music in a work situation requiring complex mental activity. Psychological reports, 8, 159-162.

Sogin, D. W. (1988). Effects of three different musical styles of background music on coding by college-age students. Perceptual and motor skills, 67, 275-280.

Spherion. (online). Spherion survey: Workers say listening to music while working improves job satisfaction, productivity. [accessed 20 August, 2007, from].

Théberge, P. (2001). ‘Plugged in': technology and popular music. In S. Frith, W. Straw & J. Street (Eds.), The Cambridge companion to pop and rock (pp. 3-25). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Thompson, W. F., Schellenberg, G. E., & Husain, G. (2001). Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect. Psychological Science, 12(3), 248-251.

Thorsén, S. (1985). Musik på en fabrik. En intervjuundersökning om musik, arbete och fritid. (Music in a factory. An interview study about music, work and leisure). University of Gothenburg: Department of Cultural Sciences.

Thorsén, S. (1987). Från spinnvisor till P3-musik: en historisk diskussion av arbetsmusikens funktioner (From spin melodies to P3 music: a historical discussion of the functions of music at work). Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning (Swedish journal for music research), 7-36.

Thorsén, S. (1988). Music at work – A musicosociological analysis. Paper presented at the Musiosociological Conference, Gothenburg, April.

Thorsén, S. (1989). Music och arbete: Slutrapport for projektet Bakgrundsmusik i arbete och fritid (Music and work: End report for the project Background music at work and in leisure) (pp. 1-83). Gothenburg: Musicology Department.

Uhrbrock, R. S. (1961). Music on the job: its influence on worker morale and production. Personnel psychology, 14, 9-38.

van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviour: evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of management journal, 41, 108-119.

van Meel, J., & Vos, P. (2001). Funky offices: Reflections on office design in the ‘new economy’. Journal of Corporate Real Estate, 3(4), 322–334.

Voida, A., Grinter, R. E., & Ducheneaut, N. (2006). Social practices around iTunes. In K. O’Hara & B. Brown (Eds.), Consuming music together: Social and collaborative aspects of music consumption technologies (pp. 57-83). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

Voida, A., Grinter, R. E., Ducheneaut, N., Edwards, W. K., & Newman, M. W. (2005). Listening In: Practices surrounding iTunes music sharing. Paper presented at the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Portland; OR; USA.

Warr, P. (1999). Well-being and the workplace. In D. Kahneman, Diener, E., & Schwartz, N. (Ed.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 392-412). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Withman, M. E. (2003). Enemy at the gate: Threats to information security. Communications of the ACM, 46(8), 91-95.

Wokun, W. (1969). Music for working. Science journal, 5a, 55-59. Wyatt, S., & Langdon, J. N. (1937). Fatigue and boredom in repetitive work. Industrial Health Research Board report No. 77. London: Her Majesty’s Stationary Office.

Yerkes, R. M., & Dodson, J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. [accessed 4 February, 2005, from]. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459-482.


Comments are closed.